Thursday, October 6, 2011

சீனாவில் இஸ்லாம்


கி. பி. 7வது நூற்றாண்டில் இஸ்லாமிய மதம் சீனாவில் பரவியது. சீனாவின் ஹுய், உய்கூர், தாதார், கர்கஸ், ஹசாக், உஸ்பெக், துங் சியாங், லாசா, பாவ் ஆன் முதலிய சிறுபான்மை தேசிய இனத்தின் 1 கோடியே 80 லட்சம் மக்களிடையே, ஏகப்பெரும்பாலோர் இஸ்லாமிய மதத்தை நம்புகின்றனர். சின் ஜியாங் உய்கூர் தன்னாட்சி பிரதேசம் மற்றும் நிங் சியா ஹுய் இனத் தன்னாட்சி பிரதேசத்திலும் கான் சு, சிங் ஹாய், யுன் நான் முதலிய மாநிலங்களிலும் சீனாவின் முஸ்லிம்கள் முக்கியமாக குழுமி வாழ்கின்றனர். தற்போது சீனாவில் 30 ஆயிரத்துக்கு அதிகமான மசூதிகள் அமைந்துள்ளன. 40 ஆயிரம் இமாம்கள் உள்ளனர்.
Source
நபிகள் நாயகம் (கி.பி.570 – 632) மறைந்து பதினெட்டு ஆண்டுகளுக்குப் பிறகு, கி.பி. 651-ல் சீனாவிற்குள் இஸ்லாம் நுழைந்தது, சில மாநிலங்களில் ஆட்சி புரிந்த குறுநில மன்னர்களால் வரவேற்பும் பெற்றது. அந்தக் குறுநில மன்னர்களின் ஆட்சிக்கட்டிலில் இஸ்லாமியர்கள் பங்கெடுத்து திறம்பட நிவாகமும் செய்தனர். சில குறுநில மன்னர்களது படைகளுக்கு தலைமை தாங்கி, வெற்றிகளையும் ஈட்டித் தந்தனர். என்றாலும், இஸ்லாமியர்களின் இந்தப் புகழும் கீர்த்தியும் சீனாவின் ஒரு சில மாகாணங்களோடு முடிந்த கதையாகிவிட்டது..  --- ஜே.எம்.சாலி

முஸ்லிம்கள் மற்றும் சீன இடையிலான தொடர்புகள் மிகவும் ஆரம்ப காலத்திலேயே இருந்தன. அரபு வியாபாரிகள் சீனாவில் இஸ்லாம் வருவதற்கு முன்பே பட்டு வியாபாரத்தில்  தொடர்பு வைத்துள்ளனர்   .
சீன முஸ்லீம் திருமண மிகவும் அருமையானது  ஜாதகம் படித்தல் போன்ற அனைத்து மூட நம்பிக்கைகளை  தவிர்க்கிறது.  இஸ்லாமிய திருமண சடங்குகள் வாசிக்க சாட்சிகளுடன் திருமணம் நடைபெறும். காதல் திருமணஅடிப்படையாக இருந்தாலும்
இஸ்லாமிய வழியில்தான் திருமணம் நடைபெறும். 



The History of Islam in China begins just a few decades after Prophet Muhammad (saw) began preaching Islam. Trade existed between pre-Islamic Arabia and China's South Coast, and flourished when Arab maritime traders converted to Islam. It reached its peak under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty.

China's long and interactive relationship with the various Steppe tribes and empires, through trade, war, subordination or domination paved the way for a large sustained Islamic community within China. Islamic influence came from the various steppe peoples who assimilated in Chinese culture. Muslims served as administrators, generals, and other leaders who were transferred to China from Persia and Central Asia to administer the empire under the Mongolians. Muslims also entered China from Vietnam where sizeable Muslim communities had sprung up due to Muslim rule in India. This played a large part in the creation of a large Islamic community in Yunnan, which became the largest concentration of Muslims outside of the Northern provinces.

Muslims in China have managed to practice their faith in China, sometimes against great odds, since the seventh century. Islam is one of the religions that is still officially recognized in China.

Uthman(ra), the third Caliph of Islam, sent the first official Muslim envoy to China in 650. The envoy, headed by Sa`d ibn Abī Waqqās, arrived in the Tang capital, Chang'an, in 651 via the overseas route. Huis generally consider this date to be the official founding of Islam in China. The Ancient Record of the Tang Dynasty recorded the historic meeting, where the envoy greeted Emperor Gaozong of Tang China and tried to convert him to Islam. Although the envoy failed to convince the Emperor to embrace Islam, the Emperor allowed the envoy to proselytize in China and ordered the establishment of the first Chinese mosque in the capital to show his respect for the religion. In Arab records there are only sparse records of the event.

Arab people are first noted in Chinese written records, under the name Ta shi in the annals of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). (Ta shi or Da shi is the Chinese rendering of Tazi--the name the Persian people used for the Arabs) Records dating from 713 speak of the arrival of a Da shi ambassador. The first major Muslim settlements in China consisted of Arab and Persian merchants.

In 756, a contingent probably consisting of Persians and Iraqis was sent to Kansu to help the emperor Su-Tsung in his struggle against the rebellion of An Lushan. Less than 50 years later, an alliance was concluded between the Tang and the Abbasids against Tibetan attacks in Central Asia. A mission from the Caliph Harun al-Rashid(766-809) arrived at Chang'an.

It is recorded that in 758, a large Muslim settlement in Guangzhou erupted in unrest and the people fled. The community had constructed a large mosque (Huaisheng Mosque), destroyed by fire in 1314, and constructed in 1349-51; only ruins of a tower remain from the first building.

During the Tang Dynasty, a steady stream of Arab (Ta'shi) and Persian (Po'si) traders arrived in China through the silk road and the overseas route through the port of Quanzhou. Not all of the immigrants were Muslims, but many of those who stayed formed the basis of the Chinese Muslim population and the Hui ethnic group. The Persian immigrants introduced polo, their cuisine, their musical instruments, and their knowledge of medicine to China.

Muslims became fully integrated into Chinese society. One interesting example of this synthesis was the process by which Muslims changed their names.

Many Muslims married Han Chinese women and simply took the name of the wife. But others took the Chinese surname of Mo, Mai, and Mu - names adopted by the Muslims who had the surnames Muhammad, Mustafa and Masoud.

Some Muslims, who could not find a Chinese surname similar to their own, adopted the Chinese character most similar to their own - Ha for Hasan, Hu for Hussain and Sa'I for Said and so on.

In addition to names, Muslim customs of dress and food also underwent a synthesis with Chinese culture.

The Islamic modes of dress and dietary rules were maintained within a Chinese cultural framework. In time, the Muslims began to speak local dialects and to read in Chinese. .
Islamic Architecture Great Mosque of Xian China. One hundred and twenty kilometers west of Mountain Huashan (among China's five famous mountains) the Great Mosque of Xian (pronounced Sian) is located in the "Huajue Xiang" district, inhabited mainly by the Muslim Hui minority. The strong Muslim community that lives and works today in Xian traces its history to Arab & Persian merchants, who after traveling the Silk Road, became permanent residents of such cities as Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Hangzhou, Yangzhou, and Chang'an (Today's Xian - was the imperial capital of China for 11 dynasties). The name Hui is an abbreviation for "Huihui," first appearing in the literature of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). Originally referring to the Huihe people (the Ouigurs) who lived in Anxi in the present-day Xinjiang and its vicinity since the Tang Dynasty (618-907). They were actually forerunners of the present-day Uygurs, who are different from today's Huis or Huihuis. Then, as now, the Muslim community maintained their culture by operating mosques and schools and according to the historical records carved in the stone tablets which are still preserved in it, the Mosque was setup in 742 AD during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD) in the 1st year in the reign of (Emperor Tian Bao) and was repaired in 1384 AD, the 17th year of the reign of emperor (Hong Wu in the Ming Dynasty). The Mosque was the religious center for Arab & Persian merchants operating in China. Today the Muslim community, which supports several mosques, runs its own primary school, foods shops and restaurants - for over 1250 years, they have been an integral part of Xian's vibrant daily life. The Great Mosque of Xian occupies an area between 12,000 to 13,000 square meters and the buildings cover more than 6,000 square meters, the Great Mosque was built in the shape of a rectangle from the east to the west, and is subdivided into five courtyards and eight pavilions. The remarkable detailed art and architectural work, characterize this Great Mosque, as one of the most unique Mosque-architecture in the world. In 1956, the Great Mosque was decreed to be an important historical and cultural site under the protection of the Shaanxi Provincial Government, in 1985 it was included in the UNESCO list of heritage sites, and in 1988 it was promoted to be one of the most important sites in China - Xian City is an Architectural treasure-house. This is the second Islamic Architecture video in a series of videos that will be published on this youtube channel - http://www.youtube.com/user/ShiaExcellence - covering Mosques, Palaces, Schools, and Monuments world wide. Video fun facts; - Software: "FX", "Photo Story 3" and "Microsoft Movie Maker 2.1" with HD prx plug-ins. - Picture duration: 3 to 40 seconds. - Transition duration: 0.75 TO 3.25 seconds. - Video format/aspect ratio: PAL & NTSC 16:9 configurations. - Photos pixel resolution: 1280 x 720. - Video output: HD 1280x720 format. - Video duration: 14:51. - Video size: 614 MB. - Number of photos: 99 stitched into 5 videos. - Music: Intro and main audio track remix by Nu & ShiaExcellence. Main audio track is a remix of several tracks by Masakazu Yoshizawa, Hiromi Hashibe, and Tateo Takahashi. - Fonts: CoventryGarden, Chancey Cursive, HongKong, and BigNoodle. - Finally, this is a non-profit, educational and personal video created solely for viewing on Youtube.com.
சியான் முஸ்லிம் தெரு

3 comments:

Ibnu Shakir said...

அலைக்கும் ஸலாம் வரஹ்...

சீனாவில் முஸ்லிமாக்கள் கார் ஓட்டலாமா சகோ?

nidurali said...

முஸ்லிமாக்கள் ஏன் கார் ஓட்டக்கூடாது?
தனி மனித தவறுக்கும் இஸ்லாத்திற்கும் சம்பந்தமில்லை . தங்கள் கேள்வி வேடிக்கையாக வருவதற்கு அரபு மன்னர் சொல்லிக் கொடுத்ததா!

Ibnu Shakir said...

அலைக்கும் ஸலாம் வரஹ்...

அல்லாஹ்வின் மார்க்கத்தில் வேடிக்கை என்று ஏதும் உண்டா சகோ?

முஸ்லிமாக்கள் எங்கிருந்தாலும் கார் பஸ் சைக்கிள் என்று எதுவும் ஓட்டக்கூடாது என்பதுதான் மார்க்க நீதி

அதனை சீன முஸ்லீம்கள் பின்பற்றுகிறார்களே என்பதற்காகத்தான் கேட்டேன்.

வேண்டுமென்றால் என் பதிவில் அது பற்றி விளக்கமாக எழுதியுள்ளேன்.

LinkWithin

Related Posts with Thumbnails